Fischer-Tropsch fuel production
Mixing CO with H2 (provided from external sources) provides the syngas which can be used in a Fischer–Tropsch (FT) plant to produce FT synthetic fuels. The syngas is converted in the FT reactor into a mixture of hydrocarbons.
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The crude FT oil exists typically (e.g. Shell’s Middle Distillates Synthesis) out of long chain waxy molecules and is subsequently upgraded by a hydro-isomerisation and hydrocracking step (mild conditions of temperature and pressure) and distillation to produce the desired, lighter products. Although the mixture of produced hydrocarbons may vary depending on the process and conditions, we here assume that the energy use and costs remain the same.
As desired, the process produces either a high share of diesel (diesel mode) or kerosene (kerosene mode). This results for diesel mode in 60% (energy) diesel, 25% (energy) kerosene and 15% (energy) other oil products, and for kerosene mode in 25% diesel, 50% kerosene, and 25% other oil products. [Schmidt 2016a, Schmidt 2018, Ansorge]