A heat pump transfers heat from a low temperature source to a higher temperature demand by applying additional power. The ratio heat output to power input is called the CoP (Coefficient of Performance).
High Temperature (HT) heat pumps that provide heat well-above 130°C for industrial application are currently not available (Marina et al., 2017). The goal of current research is to develop heat pumps that can achieve output heat temperature levels of around 200°C, which will enable heat pumps to be used for a larger group of processes. Current developments focus on using either hydrocarbons or newly developed synthetic refrigerants to achieve sink temperatures of over 140°C (ECN, 2017).
Reverse Rankine cycles heat pumps are compression heat pumps using a closed loop that are commercially available for sink temperatures up to 90°C. On request, they can even be adapted for sink temperatures of 120°C – 140°C (ECN, 2017). Although there are other types of heat pumps in development, the data in this factsheet refers to Reverse Rankine cycle heat pumps.